Canada’s Strict Regulations on Children’s Toys Should Apply to Skincare

Our skin has over 2.5 million sweat glands, one square inch of our bodies has over 650 sweat glands, 94 oils glands, 13 cold and 78 heat receptors, not to mention a whole lot of other important stuff like hair follicles, capillaries and nerves. Maybe the small amounts of ingredients like PEG (Polyethylene Glycol), Sodium Laureth Sulfate, and Petrolatum in our personal hygiene products would be acceptable, However, we are not using small amounts. The simple fact of the matter is that we use over a dozen of these products each and every day. We wash our face and hair, we brush our teeth, we clean our bodies, homes and cars with these chemicals. For the woman out there, how many hours a day does your face spend under a layer of makeup?

Here is what Health Canada says about Lead being ingested “Playing with a toy with lead is not a necessarily a health hazard, but ingesting lead through mouthing a toy or swallowing a piece, even with low levels of lead, can wreak havoc with a young brain and cause permanent brain damage if there is long-term exposure”. “Health Canada has amended the Cosmetic Regulations to require that ingredient lists appear on all cosmetic product labels. This is great news but the unfortunate part is Canada does not ban most harmful chemical ingredients that are in the products. Prior to this amendment, manufacturers were not even required to list ingredients. Canada is taking a step in the right direction but it is a small step.

Let’s put this into perspective using examples of just 3 ingredients that are in most of the Non-organic products that are being used on our skin. The Health Canada website does contain a list of ingredients that are either prohibited or restricted in cosmetic use but the list is quite small considering there could potentially be over 10,000 harmful products used in our personal hygiene products. Among the ingredients not listed on the “Hotlist” of harmful compounds are these 3:

Propylene Glycol is the active ingredient in anti-freeze. It is used to break down protein and cellular structure. It is also found in products including toothpaste, makeup and deodorants. “The EPA actually requires workers to wear protective gloves, clothing and goggles when working with it. Direct contact can cause brain, liver and kidney abnormalities.”

Sodium Laureth Sulfate is used in detergents and surfactants in car wash soaps, garage floor cleaners, and engine degreasers. Yet it is one of the most widely used ingredients in cosmetics, toothpaste, hair conditioner, shampoo and other foaming products. Exposure causes eye damage, depression, diarrhea and many other ailments.

Petrolatum is a petrochemical that contains two well known carcinogens: Benzo-A-Pyrene and Benzo-B-Fluroanthene. It prevents the skin from taking in oxygen or respiring waste. It is used in hand and skincare products to form an occlusive barrier on the skin (it prevents the skin from doing its job, detoxifying)

Looking at these 3 examples it is easy to see why more Canadian and International legislation is also needed in the skincare industry. It is extremely important to pay attention to what you are using on your body. Only you can determine what is safe and what is not. Stop putting your trust in multi-million dollar corporations and start trusting nature again. “One of every five adults is potentially exposed every day to all of the top seven carcinogenic impurities common to personal care product ingredients.” This is a pretty scary statistic especially since it is one thing we can take control of.

Organic Beauty products, essential oils for skin, aromatherapy, natural bath products and deodorants are not just a trend, they are the way of the future and optimal health.

Alternative Health Products Attacked – The 5 Top Reasons to Support a Charter of Health Freedom

Natural Health Products or NHP, such as vitamins & minerals, herbs, TCM, etc. are being attacked, decimated actually, by unnecessarily regulations arbitrarily imposed by Health Canada via the Natural Health Products Directorate. 20,000 natural products, factually totally safe, can no longer be accessed by Canadians due to arbitrary regulation, not safety laws.

Alternative Health Under Attack

However, unlike the US, Health Canada regards safe nutrients, vitamins, etc as dangerous substances that are better taken off the market. Since 2004, with the Natural Health Product Directorate (NHPD) over 20,000 wellness products have gone missing from Canadian shelves.

These therapeutic substances were not found to be dangerous, no one was injured by these products. The 20,000 NHP (herbs, vitamins, natural food concentrates, etc) were removed for not meeting regulations arbitrarily imposed by the NHPD. In fact: Removal of alternative NHP by the NHPD have made people sicker as natural remedies were actually making them well when they had free access and were benefiting from these therapeutic aids.

Recently, Bill C 51 and C 52 were introduced to Parliament as the ‘revised or new’ Food & Drug Act. These Bills were and are both non-constitutional and violate the Charter of Rights and Freedoms of Canadians — re: illegal search and seizure, non-recourse to fines levied, and essentially violated the Rule of Law as handed down to us over 800 years ago via the Magna Carta.

The resulting uproar from Canadians protesting against C 51 and even C 52 was that two of the major opposition parties, the NDP and The Liberal Party reversed their for positions to against positions on these Bills.

Where we stand now as Canadians: Vulnerable to further degradation of Human Health Care Rights.

Why Support Alternative Health Freedom and Free Access to Health Products?

Natural therapeutic products are regulated by Health Canada, a body that is used to dealing with toxic or dangerous substances – aka ‘drugs’
NHP are very safe and enhance the lives of Canadians who use them
Regulating safe products creates unnecessarily controls and results in banning by over zealous regulatory bodies, such as Health Canada and the NHPD
Putting safe health substances under the control of those who deal with dangerous substances, infers these safe products are now ‘dangerous’
Alternative health freedom implies access to try, experiment and otherwise consume therapeutic products for ones benefit or health

There are many personal reasons for you to support freedom of alternative health movements. One of these may be it’s your livelihood and another is your health may depend on your freedom of access to alternative health care products like my health does.

Please share this article with as many others as you can. Only the truth is strong enough to fight State oppression.

Do you want to insure your own health freedom now and in the future? Find out how you can become part of a Canadian national movement that will guarantee you and your children’s freedom of choice for their own bodies.

Nutritional Supplements Are Important For Optimal Health

It’s estimated we are receiving only 40 percent of the nutritional value of food nowadays. Some reports suggest this is untrue while many reports go even farther by saying this figure is actually lower. In any case, unless you are fortunate enough to have a garden close by with organic fresh food you can harvest and eat on a daily basis, I believe the food available in the supermarket does indeed lack in nutrition.

Many fresh foods travel great distances and many foods are processed to increase shelf life. To obtain the highest possible yield, producers are forced to rely on chemical fertilizers and pesticides for their crops, while other producers use growth hormones, antibiotics, and inhumane confinement for animal production. (By the way, from what I understand about antibiotics given to animals destined for the dinner table…they are not necessary if the animals are kept in clean, un-crowded environments where they are able to stretch their legs and get fresh air and sunshine daily. Another reason to shop organic.)

The availability of high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar, and low-fibre foods has rapidly become commonplace, and growing concern with processed foods is they are becoming much less expensive than nutrient-dense foods such as fruits and vegetables. The availability and lower price of processed and energy-dense foods rich in sugar and fat makes them appealing to the pocket book as well as the taste buds, but not without consequences. Obesity, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes and other chronic conditions are gaining a stronghold in North America and researchers are now beginning to admit that diet plays a huge role in the prevention and treatment of disease.

Balance, variety, and moderation are the keys to a healthful diet. A balanced proportion of foods from the different food groups, a variety of foods from within the different food groups, and moderation in the consumption of any food should provide us with the nutrients we need to sustain life.

Although developments in the food industry over time have improved food quality and safety, there are still concerns over the nutritional content the food actually contains. Nutrients should come primarily from the foods we eat, but it’s becoming increasingly difficult to find foods that have not been grown in nutritionally challenged soils. Decades of poor agricultural practices are depleting foods of the nutrients we need for optimal health and wellness.
This is why nutritional supplements are important.

Nutritional supplements are designed to provide nutrients, both essential and non-essential, that you may not be getting from your diet. Also known as dietary supplements, nutritional supplements are an important part of a balanced health regime and can offer significant health benefits. They can help to correct nutritional deficiencies and help boost the immune system, and there is growing scientific evidence supporting the benefits of nutritional supplements and their role in maintaining optimal health.

Nutritional and dietary supplements are big business. It’s estimated that over twenty-five billions dollars a year is spent in the United States alone on natural health products. So which supplements should you look for and which are safe to take?

In the United States, the FDA regulates dietary supplements. According to their website, “dietary supplements (are regulated) under a different set of regulations than those covering “conventional” foods and drug products (prescription and Over-the-Counter). Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), the dietary supplement manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed. FDA is responsible for taking action against any unsafe dietary supplement product after it reaches the market. Generally, manufacturers do not need to register their products with FDA nor get FDA approval before producing or selling dietary supplements. * Manufacturers must make sure that product label information is truthful and not misleading. *Domestic and foreign facilities that manufacture/process, pack, or hold food for human or animal consumption in the United States are required to register their facility with the FDA.”

Although “the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed” and “there are no provisions in the law for FDA to “approve” dietary supplements for safety or effectiveness before they reach the consumer”, it’s important to purchase nutritional supplements from a reputable company who has been in busy for many years. You can also read more on FDA regulations with regards to dietary supplements on the FDA website.

In Canada, the laws are much more stringent. On January 1, 2004 The Natural Health Products Regulations came into effect and apply to all natural health products. Products defined in the Regulations as natural health products include vitamins, minerals, herbal remedies, probiotics, homeopathic medicines, traditional medicines (such as Traditional Chinese Medicines), amino acids and essential fatty acids.

Natural health products that fall under these regulations require an NPN (Natural Product Number). Once Health Canada has assessed the product, an eight digit product license number, preceded by the letters “NPN” will appear on the label informing consumers that Health Canada has reviewed the product for safety, quality, and health claims, and the product has been approved to be marketed under the Natural Health Products Regulations and has authorized the product for sale in Canada. The Natural Health Product Directorate (NHPD) is the regulating authority for health products for sale in Canada.

Nutritional supplements that are considered food products or whole-food concentrates come under the regulations of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and do not require NPNs. When purchasing nutritional supplements look for a Natural Product Number (NPN) on the label to ensure the product has met the requirements of Health Canada, and also make sure the company selling the product is a reputable company with a good track record.

Including nutritional supplements in your diet and daily health regime doesn’t need to be hard or cost a lot of money. Many companies offer high quality supplements at reasonable prices and it only takes a few minutes to mix up a healthy “green drink” from a barley grass juice concentrate such as AIM BarleyLife® or include a supplement caplet such as Kyolic® Aged Garlic Extract™ with your meal.

There are many health benefits nutritional supplements have to offer. In these modern times, with the convenience, cost and available of fast and processed foods, poor dietary habits and the questionable nutrition content of nutrient-dense foods, nutritional supplements are becoming increasingly popular as an addition to complement the diet. Simply put, nutritional supplements are important for optimal health.

AIM provides a variety of superior whole food concentrates and nutritional supplements to support a healthy lifestyle, strengthen the immune system, and nourish your cells, and AIM Members enjoy the benefits of wholesale pricing.

As Members of AIM Canada, we have a dedicated team of knowledgeable people keeping on top of all the legislation and regulations, ensuring AIM Canada is compliant, so we will continue to have the right to use and share natural health products to protect our health and the health of others who wish to use Natural Health Products.

Freedom to Health – Canadian Health Food Association Attempted Monopoly

Alternative health therapy products have been brutally attacked by Health Canada. 20,000 products which once helped Canadians from ill health have been destroyed by red tape of the Natural Health Product Directorate (NHPD) with the assistance of the Canadian Health Foods Association (CHFA).

While the CHFA should have been protecting the rights of consumers to access health food products they actually were complicit with the NHPD in removing 10s of thousands of products from the shelves of health food stores. By finding out why they did this, one can effectively take action to safeguard one’s health freedom rights.

Why The CHFA Assisted NHPD?

So 70% of the CHFA members could attempt to gain a monopoly with the sparse products they were capable or willing to produce.
Fact: 70% of the CHFA member companies are owned by pharmaceutical companies who are trying to move into the natural health field in the only way they know how. By monopolizing safe and plentiful sources of products (food concentrates) through unnecessary regulation.

Many people are motivated by the natural concern for others health and wellness. Alternative health care practitioners use therapies that care for person betterment. This is good for all of Canadians.

Monopolies work on the basis of what’s best for themselves will be best for all. Selfish and narrow minded, this drive has corrupted many well seeking individuals who were unknowing participants in the deception.

Only by benefiting the greater majority and providing greater freedom, especially in personal health care choices, can a society flourish.

As an alternative health care provider or therapeutic product seller, your freedom is jeopardized by the greed of the few and the ignorance of the masses.

What Can Be Done To Make It Right?

Let the people know that their freedom of choice is being eroded away by unnecessary regulation. But more importantly, tell them they can do something very effective about it.

The greatest force in a country lies within the individual citizen, the person, to act. When that person acts and supports greater causes than themselves, the benefit returns to them. This greater cause I speak of is Health Freedom. By supporting health freedom and insisting on free choice over the care of ones own body, one insures that freedom exists for the next generation.

Do you want to insure your own health freedom now and in the future? Find out how you can become part of a Canadian national movement that will guarantee you and your children’s freedom of choice for their own bodies.

The Importance of Dental Insurance and Good Oral Health

Having adequate dental insurance is essential because it can make it easier for you to maintain good oral hygiene and health. Oral health is important because it affects your physical appearance and self confidence. It can also impact your overall health and quality of life.

According to Health Canada, untreated cavities can be painful and lead to serious infections.

Cavities and gum disease may contribute to major conditions such as diabetes and respiratory diseases. Some studies link poor oral health with heart disease and even women having pre-term, low-birth-rate babies. Even missing and crooked teeth can hamper your ability to chew and digest food properly, leading to insufficient oral health.

To maintain good oral hygiene and health, Health Canada recommends that you brush and floss your teeth daily. You should also use an antimicrobial mouth rinse to minimize bacteria in your mouth. It’s also important to eat a healthy diet based on Canada’s Food Guide. In addition, visit your dentist regularly.

Insurance Helps with Routine and Major Care
Insurance can make it more feasible for you to receive dental care for routine and conditions. Statistics have shown that patients with dental coverage will seek out required care on a far more regular basis than those without coverage, according to the Canadian Dental Association. That’s why it’s important for you to maintain sufficient dental insurance coverage.

Dental insurance generally covers 100 percent of cleanings, exams and annual X-rays. Extractions, certain surgeries and emergency care are also fully covered under most insurance plans. If you don’t have any major problems with your teeth, you’ll need to visit the dentist approximately twice a year. During that time, the dentist will examine your teeth and gums for signs of tooth decay and gum disease. Each year, X-rays of your teeth will be taken to identify undetected problems. If you don’t have any active tooth decay or gum disease, you probably will not need to change your brushing or flossing habits.

During regular checkups, a dental hygienist will clean your teeth. He or she will use a small metal tool to scrape hard mineral buildup known as tartar off your teeth, floss your teeth thoroughly and use a special compound to help clean and polish your teeth. The hygienist may also apply sealants to prevent cavities or fluoride treatments during routine office visits.

Dental Insurance and Serious Issues
If you have major problems with your teeth, dental insurance will generally cover a portion of the costs. For example, many insurance plans cover up to 80 percent for fillings and up to 50 percent for root canals, restorative crowns and implants. Corrective braces are often covered at more than half the cost, although most plans cover orthodontics only for children under the age of 18. Most insurance plans do not pay for cosmetic dentistry used to improve the appearance of a person’s teeth, mouth and smile. Some of the most common cosmetic procedures include teeth whitening, veneers and inlays/onlays.

Enjoy Your Journey To The Fullest With A Travel Cover

Traveling helps you gain new experiences of life, it displays the tradition and custom across the world. It refreshes you from the everyday hectic schedule. The trip will surely give you a new dimension of life. Obliviously, whether you travel with family or alone, business trip or government job purpose, you want the trip to be fun filled and with ease. What wants to encounter trouble while travelling distant countries, cut off from your familiar surroundings? For a moment there will a panic button pressed in your minds. However, unexpected situations do come up and you have to be prepared for them. Accidents, illness, theft, an emergency situation like flight delays, riots, terrorist attacks at the airport might erupt anytime and so you have to be planned to face such situations. To avoid such as unwanted situation and stay financially equipped to combat it, owning best travel insurance would be the masterstroke.
The article discusses some situation that will make you realize how travel insurance can be handy:
While nothing may go wrong, but if something bad were to happen you may suffer an injury else fall critically ill due to bad weather as such and needs to be hospitalized. Imagine the costs that would incur on medical treatment in the foreign country. It will make a huge hole in your pockets. A good travel plan will just help you to take care of such contingency and a major portion of your medical expenses will be covered.
Financial Emergency
In case your hotel room gets burglarized, wherein you get robbed or baggage is stolen, then obviously you cannot travel as your passport important documents were kept inside. The result would be you would have to stay for few extra days. Naturally, it will incur costs to protect you from this unexpected financial hit, your policy will provide assistance for these incidents. Your financial emergency assistance will also help you during a loss of travel funds.

Personal Liability
Many times accident happen unexpectedly, you may not be the victim but could help liable for damage or injury caused, in that situation. The mishap is as such that resulted in injury to someone or damage to someone’s property. At such point of time, your Best travel insurance will come to your rescue. It will take care of third party liability cover and make your free from any form of tension during your journey giving a peaceful and enjoying experience.
These day online sites offer travel insurance policies with varied benefits and features. You can visit the comparison sites and compare them in terms of benefits & features, claim settlement ratio, terms, and conditions, etc. and then go for suitable purchase.
Purchasing Best travel insurance online is all about providing travellers an ideal cover against financial emergencies and uncertainties right from the comfort of your home or offices. However, certain factors which one should look for while zeroing the policy would be:
Covers entire patient hospitalization along with daily allowance
Personal accident covers in case of permanent disability/death
Cover for contingencies related to personal possession
Cover baggage, documentation visa or passport loss
Covers Expenses related to trip delays/ hotel accommodation, trip cancellation
So, buy your Best travel insurance policy today for creating happy memories in while traveling abroad!

Environmental Racism in Canada: Water Quality Crises for First Nations People

Environmental racism is a subgroup of environmental justice, or “the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies” (“What Is Environmental Justice?”). It calls for a complete lack of discrimination in environmental law as opposed to an enforced equality. In relation to this, environmental racism can only be abolished if there is a lack of discrimination based on race in the exposure of populations to hazardous pollutants. If there were a deliberate equity of exposure, it would not be any better. It is only through a complete absence of the consideration of race that it can be fixed. In this essay, I will address the presence of ER in Canada and explain the effects of it. I will then focus more narrowly on a specific group to demonstrate the implications of ER and then compare it to ER in the United States.

The study of environmental racism (ER) has been active in the United States since it was first introduced by Dr. Benjamin Chavis in 1982. Dr. Chavis was an assistant to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and was thus inspired to work on the civil rights movement. He defines ER as “racial discrimination in environmental policymaking that results in the deliberate and disproportionate exposure of racial and ethnic minorities to toxic and hazardous environmental conditions” (Chavis). In the United States, the racial groups most affected by ER are African Americans and Hispanics; if applied to Canada, First Nations are predominantly affected.

The United States is most active in the discussion of environmental racism, so it is important to compare Canada’s version with it. The United States suffers from discrimination predominantly against African American and Hispanic low-income families and individuals. This is demonstrated by how they are either convinced by their real estate agents to purchase a home in an area close to the ghetto or are more likely to have their communities rezoned by discriminatory all-white committees, resulting in the development of industry near their homes (Checker 15). Low wages in these areas coupled with a lack of decent education prevents African Americans and Hispanics from gaining the opportunity to leave their contaminated communities (Checker 15). This is the result of deep-set discrimination that has spanned generations in the United States. Ever since the civil rights movement, there have been positive developments in regards to all areas of racism, including environmental; yet, its effects are still being felt today.

In Canada, we see a different kind of struggle. Canadian First Nations are recognized under the Constitution of Canada as self-governing, which “injects an additional component of violence, repression, and state terrorism that is largely absent from cases affecting visible minorities in the United States, where even violence takes on quite different connotations and has no component of national self-defense” (Westra 103). From this, one can easily see something that may have gone unnoticed: the discrepancy between the struggles of minorities in the United States versus those of Canadian First Nations. First Nations were the original North Americans; they were not imported as slaves, nor did they emigrate from other countries, so their struggle is tied intrinsically to the land in Canada. Additionally, First Nations are spiritually connected to the natural world, resulting in a consecration of religious sites when areas are polluted. Therefore:

Aboriginal peoples in Canada are particularly affected by unsustainable forestry practices, climate change (resulting in serious disruption to arctic ecosystems), large-scale hydroelectric projects, low-level flight testing, destructive extractive projects, contaminated drinking water, indoor air pollution, and in some cases, industrial contamination. (Collins and Murtha, 961-2)

The result of many of these disruptions is water contamination. Water quality crises have affected some First Nations communities for over a decade. As of 28 February 2014, there were 92 First Nations communities under a drinking water advisory in Canada (Health Canada). These advisories are due to pollution in the water, bacterial contamination, or algae growths; they range from a warning to a complete “do not consume” mandate.

Unfortunately, due to the isolated nature of most First Nations communities, the water advisories are less likely to be addressed than in more populous areas. In the case of Walkertown, Ontario (a predominantly white municipality), an E. coli contamination in 2000 led to “a highly publicized and formal public inquiry [which] resulted in new provincial drinking water legislation and new investments in water treatment technology” (Patrick 386). Contrastingly, Neskantanga First Nation in Northern Ontario has been on a boil water advisory since 1995 (Vowel). The duration of most First Nations water advisories often last longer than a year (Health Canada), which could be very disruptive if that advisory was “do not consume,” which it sometimes is. The fact is, First Nations communities find themselves with low water quality due to many factors. Sometimes, it is just the water’s natural bacteria levels that cause these advisories, and other times it is directly due to contamination in the area from pollution. Either way, the Canadian government is much quicker to investigate water quality in municipalities that are not First Nations and is less likely to invest in new water treatment plants in these communities.

Kashechewan is a First Nations Community in Northern Ontario, located on James Bay coast of the Hudson Bay. In 2005, they had a water-quality crisis that led to over 800 of the community’s residents being evacuated. This crisis was caused by an E. coli contamination in the water, which was in turn caused by the failure of a chlorine pump in their subpar water treatment plant. Instead of receiving funding for a new plant, the troubled community received a recommendation from the federal government: to move their entire town to the nearby city of Timmins, which has higher-quality schools, hospitals, and water (Curry). This suggestion in itself demonstrated the lack of understanding the federal government has for the importance of land in First Nations culture.

The water treatment plant in Kashechewan – when working – was effective in keeping the tap water at an acceptable level of cleanliness; however, it is what it was trying to keep out of the water that brings us back to environmental racism. Kashechewan is located at the junction of the Albany River and the James Bay coast. The town is on the south side of the river, just across the Mekopaymuko Channel; inland a mile or two there are two sewage lagoons that drain into the Albany River. The pollution leaks into the water from these lagoons, which then flows into the water around the town and becomes one of the major causes of contamination in the water (Dhillon). The location of these lagoons is suspect: there is nothing else in the area, so why locate them where they would come in direct contact with the town’s drinking water? Whether through negligence, ignorance, or a deliberate act, the placement of the sewage brings to attention the problems faced by remote First Nations communities.

Faced with a broken water treatment plant, Kashechewan had a problem. How would they afford a new system? In 2011, the reservation had 1,900 residents, with 40 babies being born every year (Stastna). In 2005, the median income for First Nations people living on reserves was $19,000 (Statistics Canada). Kashechewan easily needs more housing for the number of residents it has, but building new homes is not an option for the community. Due to the Indian Act, aboriginals are treated as children of state; their homes are built on Crown land, which means they do not own their property and therefore cannot apply for normal bank loans and mortgages (Stastna). The water treatment plant was only a decade old and had undergone a half-million dollar renovation just a year before. When it was built, it was placed 135 meters downstream from the sewage lagoons, thus being directly in the contaminated flow below the release point of the lagoons. The Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs initially funded and planned this sewage treatment plant, paid for the renovations, and even spent a quarter-million dollars flying in bottled water to the reservation after the water was contaminated (“Ont. Reserve Decries First Nations Water Crisis”). This leads one to question why the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs would allow for a water treatment plant to be built in such a contaminated spot. It seems unavoidable that this would eventually cause a leak resulting in a polluted water supply for the area.

When one considers Dr. Chavis’ definition of environmental racism, it becomes apparent that this may be at play in the instance of Kashechewan. The placement of the facility appears to be a deliberate and disproportionate exposure of the residents of Kashechewan to hazardous environmental conditions. Because the land here is not owned by the First Nations people who live on it, they have no say over where the plant is placed. By choosing to place a sewage lagoon so close to the reservation and then later placing the water treatment plant downstream from it, the Canadian government has failed the residents of Kashechewan.

As mentioned above, ER in Canada cannot be separated from land ownership and sovereignty, because it directly affects ER. This is visible in the instance of Kashechewan: it is a result of the Indian Act that they do not own their land, and are therefore unable to choose the location of their sewage and water treatment plants. Not only has the government failed them in its laws, it has failed them with its actions. This would not be a problem if the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs chose a more logical placement for either one of the sources of contamination. It is through a blatant disregard for the health and wellbeing of the First Nations people of Kashechewan that the Ministry allowed for this to happen.

Comparing environmental racism in Canada to its counterpart in the United States is difficult. Instances such as Warren County differ so much from ones like Kashechewan; this becomes apparent when we consider the nature of the injustice. In Warren County, NC, a private PCB landfill site was used to illegally bury 60,000 tons of contaminated soil in the predominantly black community. In Kashechewan, the Canadian government placed a water treatment facility in the direct path of contaminants from a sewage lagoon, resulting in the infection of residents when the subpar treatment facility broke. In the United States, the injustice was done publicly and was protested all along. It was also remedied and decontaminated in the following decades, becoming a main contributor to the environmental justice and ER movements. In Canada, the injustice is still ongoing and is widely unknown outside of the small community of Kashechewan. It is not protested by anyone but the residents, and it has yet to be rectified. While the circumstances in Warren County affected many more people, it does not mean they are worse than those in Northern Ontario. It is a different type of ER that is seen in Kashechewan, and that is what makes it frightening. It is under the radar and ongoing due to the inherent racism in Canadian laws and policies like those found in the Indian Act.

Environmental racism in Canada affects many First Nations communities across the country. It is widely seen in the contamination of water on reservations due to pollution by logging, hydraulic fracking, or sewage. It is based on and supported by laws that have been in effect for over a century, and will continue to affect these communities unless something is done to stop it. The most effective way to stop environmental injustice and racism is to raise awareness. If Canadians worked together and spread information about the terrible conditions in so many First Nations communities instead of focusing on the problems in the United States, perhaps they could fix what over 100 years of government discrimination through the Indian Act has caused.